13 [E.2 Nanos considers this to be submission to synagogue authorities, not to the emperor - necessarily. Note the four types of authority (inconsistently translated in RSV) and the four types of payment in chiastic order. The unity of the assembly of Jews, proselytes, and gentiles in Christ is what is in Paul's mind.]
1: Let every person be subject to the governing authorities.
For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God.
2: Therefore one who resists the authorities resists what God has appointed,
and those who resist will incur judgment.
3: For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad.
Would you have no respect (phobos) of the one who is in authority?
Then do what is good, and you will receive approval,
4: for that one is God's minister for your good.
But if you do wrong, be afraid, for that one does not bear the sword in vain;
the same is the minister of God to execute his wrath on the wrongdoer.
5: Therefore one must be subject,
not only to avoid God's wrath but also for the sake of conscience.
6: For the same reason you also pay taxes,
for the authorities are servants of God, attending to this very thing.
7: Pay all of them their dues,
taxes to whom taxes are due,
revenue to whom revenue is due,
respect to whom respect is due,
honor to whom honor is due.
8: Owe no one anything, except to love one another;
for one who loves one's neighbor has fulfilled the law.
9: The commandments,
"You shall not commit adultery,
You shall not kill,
You shall not steal,
You shall not covet," and any other commandment,
are summed up in this sentence,
"You shall love your neighbor as yourself."
10: Love does no wrong to a neighbor;
therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
11: Besides this you know what hour it is, how it is full time now for you to wake from sleep.
For salvation is nearer to us now than when we first believed;
12: the night is far gone, the day is at hand.
Let us then cast off the works of darkness and put on the armor of light;
13: let us conduct ourselves becomingly as in the day,
not in reveling and drunkenness, not in debauchery and licentiousness, not in quarreling and jealousy.
14: But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to gratify its desires.
This series on Romans begins here